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The Second World War in Music is a project developed and initiated by MusicForce, in cooperation with the Netherlands Music Institute (NMI). It is made possible by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport through its Erfgoed van de Oorlog [“Legacy of War”] subsidy program.

Concept/production/project management/final editing: Nicole Janssen, MusicForce 

Editorial Board

  • Frits Zwart; director NMI
  • Geert van den Dungen; musicologist
  • Regina Grüter; Head of the War Aftercare Department of the Netherlands Red Cross
  • Paul Osseweijer; ict manager NMI (organization and advice ict)
  • Maarten Eilander; specialist light music and jazz
  • Joep Schenk; specialist Suriname and Netherlands Antilles


Personal Stories
Warm thanks to all the interviewees for their willingness and trust in telling their stories:

  • Hans van Collem
  • Jan van Dijk
  • Pieter Dolk
  • Hans van Leeuwen
  • Helge Loewenberg-Domp
  • Annie de Reuver
  • Flora Schrijver
  • Gisela Wieberdink-Söhnlein

Thanks to

  • Guido Abuys (Memorial Center Camp Westerbork) for the contact with Hans van Collem en Flora Schrijver
  • Jeroen van den Eijnde (Camp Vught National Memorial) for the contact with Gisela Wieberdink-Söhnlein
  • Henk van Gelder en Bas van Toor for the contact with Annie de Reuver
  • Jochem van der Heide (Leo Smit Foundation) voor het contact met Helge Loewenberg-Domp
  • Joyce Kiliaan en Annette de Klerk for the contact with Pieter Dolk
  • Frits Zwart for the contact with Jan van Dijk and Hans van Leeuwen


  • Direction/montage: Robert Oey
  • Producer: René Mendel, Interakt
  • Concept/research/pre-consultations: Nicole Janssen, MusicForce


  • Author article Pieter Dolk: Annette de Klerk, Mens&Melodie
  • Author article Hans Van Leeuwen: Pauline Micheels
  • Author article Flora Schrijver: Mirjam Verheijen, Het meisje met de accordeon, de overleving van Flora Schrijver in Auschwitz-Birkenau en Bergen-Belsen [“The Girl with the Accordion: Flora Schrijver’s Survival in Auschwitz-Birkenau and Bergen-Belsen”]; published by Uitgeverij Scheffers, 1994.
  • Author article Annie de Reuver: Rein Wolters, Onverbloemd, 90 jaar Annie de Reuver [“Outspoken: Ninety Years Annie de Reuver”]; Gruppo Creativo, 2007.
  • Author articles Hans van Collem, Jan van Dijk, Helge Loewenberg-Domp, Gisela Wieberdink-Söhnlein: Nicole Janssen, MusicForce
  • Editor articles Hans Van Collem, Jan Van Dijk, Helge Loewenberg-Domp, Gisela Wieberdink-Söhnlein: Elisa Mutsaers, Filmatelier Den Haag
  • Final editing: Nicole Janssen, MusicForce

Special thanks to all the people and organizations mentioned below who provided thematic and musical content for the various themes. See also “About the Authors.”


  • Author Introduction: Geert van den Dungen
  • Author Concert Life, Jewish Symphony Orchestra, After the War: Pauline Micheels. Adaptation of texts from Een muziekgeschiedenis der Nederlanden [“A Musical History of the Netherlands”], editor-in-chief Louis Peter Grijp; Salomé, 2001
  • Author Light Music, Radio Oranje/Watergeus: Henk van Gelder. Adaptation of texts from Ongehoord, amusement en propaganda tijdens de bezetting [“Unheard: Entertainment and Propaganda During the Occupation”], Henk van Gelder; Netherlands Theatre Institute, 2005
  • Author A Little War Against Jazz: Paul Koedijk.  Adaptation of texts from Nederland en de Tweede Wereldoorlog ["The Netherlnads and WWII"], editing and compilation compilation René Kok en Erik Somers, NIOD; Uitgeverij Waanders, 2005
  • Author Organized Music Looting, advice documents: Willem de Vries
  • Advice collection Jewish Historical Museum: Lonnie Stegink, Jewish Historical Museum
  • Advice archives NIOD (Netherlands Institute for War Documentation): Rolf Utermöhlen, Hubert Berkhout, NIOD
  • Advice documents Netherlands: Herman Openneer
  • Diary Paul Sanders: Frank de Jong, International Institute of Social History

Former Dutch East Indies

  • Author, historic music recordings, illustrations/photos: Frans Schreuder. Adaptation of texts from Gestrand in Indië. Muziek en cabaret in gevangenschap [“Stranded in the West Indies: Music and Cabaret in Captivity”], Frans Schreuder and Nadet Somers, Walburg Pers, 2005
  • Documents, music, photo's Orchestra of Voices: Len van den Dungen (Women's Choir Malle Babbe), Madelyn van Rijckevorsel, Maarten Tromp, record company Mirasound
  • Author article Johanna Esselink-Roest, photo's: Johanna Esselink Roest 


  • Research music life Suriname 1940-1945, author: John Leefmans

Netherlands Antilles

  • Author, illustrations, music (Bula Waya, Herr Hitler): Tim de Wolf, Bureau for Audio Archeologie De Wolf

Camp Vught

  • Organization and advice collection Vught: Brigitte de Kok, Camp Vught National Memorial
  • Advice documents Vught, author article Pieter Dolk: Annette de Klerk

Camp Westerbork

  • Authors: Dirk Mulder, Ben Prinsen. Adaptation of texts from among others Westerborkcahier 4, Lachen in het donker [“Laughing in the Dark”], amusement in Kamp Westerbork, editing Dirk Mulder en Ben Prinsen; Memorial Center Camp Westerbork/Van Gorcum & Comp., 1996
  • Advice content and collection Westerbork: Guido Abuys, Memorial Center Camp Westerbork

Musicians and artists

  • Author articles Hendrik Andriessen, Henk Badings, Rudolf Escher, Marius Flothuis, Jan van Gilse, Jan Koetsier, Bertus van Lier, Willem Mengelberg: Geert van den Dungen
  • Author articles Jacques van Tol, Ramblers: Paul Koedijk. Adaptation of texts from Nederland en de Tweede Wereldoorlog ["Netherlands and WWII"], editing and compilation René Kok en Erik Somers, NIOD; Uitgeverij Waanders, 2005
  • Author Johnny&Jones: Dirk Mulder, Ben Prinsen. Adaptation of texts from among others Westerborkcahier 4, Lachen in het donker [“Laughing in the Dark”], amusement in Kamp Westerbork, editing Dirk Mulder en Ben Prinsen; Memorial Center Camp Westerbork/Van Gorcum & Comp., 1996


  • Organisation and advice entertainment works: Maarten Eilander
  • Digitizing of works, advice music: Ger van de Beuken, Music Center the Netherlands
  • Recordings: NM Classics/Music Center the Netherlands (Davo van Peursen); Netherlands Theatre Institute (Anne-Marie Kremer); record companies Attaca Records (Sieuwert Verster), Granny Records (Harry Coster), Tatlin Records (Huib Ramaer); broadcasting networks AVRO (Tom Steenbergen), KRO (Frank Weijers), NCRV (Jochem Brouwer/Marc van Gisbergen); Bob Hanf Stichting (Ruth Tillema-Hanf)

Archive documents
The documents on this site originate from the archives of Dutch institutions, especially NIOD, Netherlands Music Institute, Memorial Center Camp Westerbork and Camp Vught National Memorial. Another portion originates from various private collections, including those of Herman Openneer and Frans Schreuder.


  • Advice literature: Henk Janssen


  • Internship content and research: Rosanne Baars, University of Amsterdam. Thanks to supervisor Paul Knevel, History Department.


  • Josh Dillon
  • Jan Warndorff, Beter Engels Vertaalbureau

Many of the photos appearing on this site are from the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation’s Beeldbank WO2 [“NIOD/WWII Image Bank”]; see references on the relevant pages.  
This website is property of MusicForce and the Netherlands Music Institute (NMI). The copyright law of 1912 and the Database law of 1999 apply. Reproduction of all or part of this publication with the express intention of communicating it to the public or otherwise exploiting it is only allowed with permission from MusicForce and the Netherlands Music Institute. Certain conditions may be attached should permission be granted. Reproduction in the form of print-outs or machine-readable copies which are confined to a few copies and which are solely for the purpose of individual study or use is allowed. If data have been downloaded via this website from elsewhere, for example from databanks, the appropriate conditions apply. MusicForce and the Netherlands Music Institute make an effort for the settlement of copyrights of texts and images. If in spite of this anyone supposes to have a copyright claim, one is asked to contact MusicForce at message@musicforce.org.